- A Response to “Scientific” Creationism
- Isochron dating - Wikipedia
- The Age of the Earth
- Isochron Dating
Zircon has a high hardness 7. Zircon can also survive metamorphism. Chemically, zircon usually contains high amounts of U and low amounts of Pb, so that large amounts of radiogenic Pb are produced. Other minerals that also show these properties, but are less commonly used in radiometric dating are Apatite and sphene. Discordant dates will not fall on the Concordia curve.
Sometimes, however, numerous discordant dates from the same rock will plot along a line representing a chord on the Concordia diagram. Such a chord is called a discordia. We can also define what are called Pb-Pb Isochrons by combining the two isochron equations 7 and 8.
Since we know that the , and assuming that the Pb and Pb dates are the same, then equation 11 is the equation for a family of lines that have a slope. The answer is about 6 billion years. This argument tells when the elements were formed that make up the Earth, but does not really give us the age of the Earth. It does, however, give a maximum age of the Earth. Is this the age of the Earth? Lunar rocks also lie on the Geochron, at least suggesting that the moon formed at the same time as meteorites. Modern Oceanic Pb - i. Pb separated from continents and thus from average crust also plots on the Geochron, and thus suggests that the Earth formed at the same time as the meteorites and moon.
Thus, our best estimate of the age of the Earth is 4. The initial ratio has particular importance for studying the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle and crust, as we discussed in the section on igneous rocks. Since K is one of the 10 most abundant elements in the Earth's crust, the decay of 40 K is important in dating rocks. But this scheme is not used because 40 Ca can be present as both radiogenic and non-radiogenic Ca. Since Ar is a noble gas, it can escape from a magma or liquid easily, and it is thus assumed that no 40 Ar is present initially.
Note that this is not always true. If a magma cools quickly on the surface of the Earth, some of the Ar may be trapped. If this happens, then the date obtained will be older than the date at which the magma erupted. For example lavas dated by K-Ar that are historic in age, usually show 1 to 2 my old ages due to trapped Ar. Such trapped Ar is not problematical when the age of the rock is in hundreds of millions of years. The dating equation used for K-Ar is: Some of the problems associated with K-Ar dating are Excess argon.
This is only a problem when dating very young rocks or in dating whole rocks instead of mineral separates. Minerals should not contain any excess Ar because Ar should not enter the crystal structure of a mineral when it crystallizes. Thus, it always better to date minerals that have high K contents, such as sanidine or biotite. If these are not present, Plagioclase or hornblende. If none of these are present, then the only alternative is to date whole rocks. Some 40 Ar could be absorbed onto the sample surface. This can be corrected for.
Most minerals will lose Ar on heating above o C - thus metamorphism can cause a loss of Ar or a partial loss of Ar which will reset the atomic clock. If only partial loss of Ar occurs then the age determined will be in between the age of crystallization and the age of metamorphism.
If complete loss of Ar occurs during metamorphism, then the date is that of the metamorphic event. The problem is that there is no way of knowing whether or not partial or complete loss of Ar has occurred. Examples of questions on this material that could be asked on an exam.
Prior to the best and most accepted age of the Earth was that proposed by Lord Kelvin based on the amount of time necessary for the Earth to cool to its present temperature from a completely liquid state. Principles of Radiometric Dating Radioactive decay is described in terms of the probability that a constituent particle of the nucleus of an atom will escape through the potential Energy barrier which bonds them to the nucleus.
Thus, if we start out with 1 gram of the parent isotope, after the passage of 1 half-life there will be 0. Some examples of isotope systems used to date geologic materials. To see how we actually use this information to date rocks, consider the following: To account for this, we first note that there is an isotope of Sr, 86 Sr, that is: If we divide equation 4 through by the amount of 86 Sr, then we get: Note also that equation 5 has the form of a linear equation, i.
How can we use this? In nature, however, each mineral in the rock is likely to have a different amount of 87 Rb. Thus, once the rock has cooled to the point where diffusion of elements does not occur, the 87 Rb in each mineral will decay to 87 Sr, and each mineral will have a different 87 Rb and 87 Sr after passage of time. The Concordia curve can be calculated by defining the following: The discordia is often interpreted by extrapolating both ends to intersect the Concordia. Pb leakage is the most likely cause of discordant dates, since Pb will be occupying a site in the crystal that has suffered radiation damage as a result of U decay.
U would have been stable in the crystallographic site, but the site is now occupied by by Pb. An event like metamorphism could heat the crystal to the point where Pb will become mobile. Another possible scenario involves U leakage, again possibly as a result of a metamorphic event.
A Response to “Scientific” Creationism
U leakage would cause discordant points to plot above the cocordia. The Age of the Earth A minimum age of the Earth can be obtained from the oldest known rocks on the Earth. So far, the oldest rock found is a tonalitic Gneiss metamorphic rock rock from the Northwest Territories, Canada, with an age of 3. This gives us only a minimum age of the Earth. For example, the ratio of lead of mass relative to that of mass has changed from an initial value of about 10 present when Earth was formed to an average value of about 19 in rocks at the terrestrial surface today.
This is true because uranium is continuously creating more lead. This would be called a model age. No parent-daughter value for a closed system is involved—rather, just a single isotopic measurement of lead viewed with respect to the expected evolution of lead on and in Earth.
Isochron dating - Wikipedia
Unfortunately, the simplifying assumption in this case is not true, and lead model ages are approximate at best. Other model ages can be calculated using neodymium isotopes by extrapolating present values back to a proposed mantle-evolution line.
In both cases, approximate ages that have a degree of validity with respect to one another result, but they are progressively less reliable as the assumptions on which the model is calculated are violated. The progressive increase in the abundance of daughter isotopes over time gains a special significance where the parent element is preferentially enriched in either the mantle or the crust. In contrast, modern volcanic rocks in the oceans imply that much of the mantle has a value between about 0.
Should crustal material be recycled, the strontium isotopic signature of the melt would be diagnostic. Fossils record the initial, or primary, age of a rock unit.
The Age of the Earth
Isotopic systems, on the other hand, can yield either the primary age or the time of a later event, because crystalline materials are very specific in the types of atoms they incorporate, in terms of both the atomic size and charge. An element formed by radioactive decay is quite different from its parent atom and thus is out of place with respect to the host mineral. All it takes for such an element to be purged from the mineral is sufficient heat to allow solid diffusion to occur. Each mineral has a temperature at which rapid diffusion sets in, so that, as a region is slowly heated, first one mineral and then another loses its daughter isotopes.
This is the temperature below which a mineral becomes a closed chemical system for a specific radioactive decay series. Accordingly, the parent-daughter isotope ratio indicates the time elapsed since that critical threshold was reached. In this case, the host mineral could have an absolute age very much older than is recorded in the isotopic record.
The isotopic age then is called a cooling age. It is even possible by using a series of minerals with different blocking temperatures to establish a cooling history of a rock body—i. When this happens, the age has little to do with the cooling time. Another problem arises if a region undergoes a second reheating event. Certain minerals may record the first event, whereas others may record the second, and any suggestion of progressive cooling between the two is invalid. This complication does not arise when rapid cooling has occurred. Identical ages for a variety of minerals with widely different blocking temperatures is unequivocal proof of rapid cooling.
Fortunately for geologists, the rock itself records in its texture and mineral content the conditions of its formation. A rock formed at the surface with no indication of deep burial or new mineral growth can be expected to give a valid primary age by virtue of minerals with low blocking temperatures. On the other hand, low-blocking-point minerals from a rock containing minerals indicative of high temperatures and pressures cannot give a valid primary age.
Such minerals would be expected to remain open until deep-level rocks of this sort were uplifted and cooled. Given these complicating factors, one can readily understand why geochronologists spend a great deal of their time and effort trying to see through thermal events that occurred after a rock formed. The importance of identifying and analyzing minerals with high blocking temperatures also cannot be overstated.
Minerals with high blocking temperatures that form only at high temperatures are especially valuable. The mineral zircon datable by the uranium-lead method is one such mineral. Successively higher blocking temperatures are recorded for another mica type known as muscovite and for amphibole , but the ages of both of these minerals can be completely reset at temperatures that have little or no effect on zircon. Vast areas within the Canadian Shield , which have identical ages reflecting a common cooling history, have been identified.
These are called geologic provinces. The age of a geologic sample is measured on as little as a billionth of a gram of daughter isotopes. Moreover, all the isotopes of a given chemical element are nearly identical except for a very small difference in mass. Such conditions necessitate instrumentation of high precision and sensitivity. Both these requirements are met by the modern mass spectrometer.
A high-resolution mass spectrometer of the type used today was first described by the American physicist Alfred O. Nier in , but it was not until about that such instruments became available for geochronological research see also mass spectrometry. For isotopic dating with a mass spectrometer, a beam of charged atoms, or ions, of a single element from the sample is produced. This beam is passed through a strong magnetic field in a vacuum , where it is separated into a number of beams, each containing atoms of only the same mass.
Because of the unit electric charge on every atom, the number of atoms in each beam can be evaluated by collecting individual beams sequentially in a device called a Faraday cup. Once in this collector, the current carried by the atoms is measured as it leaks across a resistor to ground. It is not possible simply to count the atoms, because all atoms loaded into the source do not form ions and some ions are lost in transmission down the flight tube. Precise and accurate information as to the number of atoms in the sample can, however, be obtained by measuring the ratio of the number of atoms in the various separated beams.
By adding a special artificially enriched isotope during sample dissolution and by measuring the ratio of natural to enriched isotopes in adjacent beams, the number of daughter isotopes can be readily determined. Lead produced in a type of particle accelerator called a cyclotron constitutes such an ideal spike.
As the sample is heated and vaporizes under the vacuum in the source area of the mass spectrometer, it is commonly observed that the lighter isotopes come off first, causing a bias in the measured values that changes during the analysis. In most cases this bias, or fractionation, can be corrected if the precise ratio of two of the stable isotopes present is known.
Such precision is often essential in the isochron method see above because of the small changes in relative daughter abundance that occur over geologic time. The ability to add a single artificial mass to the spectrum in a known amount and to determine the abundances of other isotopes with respect to this provides a powerful analytical tool. By means of this process, known as isotope dilution , invisibly small amounts of material can be analyzed, and, because only ratios are involved, a loss of part of the sample during preparation has no effect on the result.
Spike solutions can be calibrated simply by obtaining a highly purified form of the element being calibrated. After carefully removing surface contamination, a precisely weighted portion of the element is dissolved in highly purified acid and diluted to the desired level in a weighed quantity of water.
What is required is dilution of 1 cubic cm to 1 litre 0. In this way, a known number of natural isotopes can be mixed with a known amount of spike and the concentration in the spike solution determined from the ratio of the masses. Once the calibration has been completed, the process is reversed and a weighed amount of spike is mixed with the parent and daughter elements from a mineral or rock.
The ratio of the masses then gives the number of naturally produced atoms in the sample. The use of calibrated enriched isotopic tracers facilitates checks for contamination, even though the process is time-consuming. A small but known amount of tracer added to a beaker of water can be evaporated under clean-room conditions.
Once loaded in a mass spectrometer, the contamination from the beaker and the water is easily assessed with respect to the amount of spike added. The materials analyzed during isotopic investigations vary from microgram quantities of highly purified mineral grains to gram-sized quantities of rock powders. In all cases, the material must be dissolved without significant contamination. The spike should be added before dissolution. Certain minerals that are highly refractory both in nature and in the laboratory e.
In this case, the sample is confined in a solid Teflon trade name for a synthetic resin composed of polytetrafluoroethylene metal-clad pressure vessel, introduced by the Canadian geochronologist Thomas E. The method just described proved to be a major technical breakthrough as it resulted in a reduction in lead-background contamination by a factor of between 10, and nearly 1,, This means that a single grain can now be analyzed with a lower contamination level or background correction than was possible before with , similar grains.
Advances in high-sensitivity mass spectrometry of course were essential to this development. Once dissolved, the sample is ready for the chemical separation of the dating elements. This is generally achieved by using the methods of ion-exchange chromatography. In this process, ions are variously adsorbed from solution onto materials with ionic charges on their surface and separated from the rest of the sample. After the dating elements have been isolated, they are loaded into a mass spectrometer and their relative isotopic abundances determined.
The abundance of certain isotopes used for dating is determined by counting the number of disintegrations per minute i. The rate is related to the number of such atoms present through the half-life.
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This radioactive carbon is continually formed when nitrogen atoms of the upper atmosphere collide with neutrons produced by the interaction of high-energy cosmic rays with the atmosphere. An organism takes in small amounts of carbon, together with the stable nonradioactive isotopes carbon 12 C and carbon 13 C , as long as it is alive.
The time that has passed since the organism was alive can be determined by counting the beta emissions from a tissue sample. The number of emissions in a given time period is proportional to the amount of residual carbon The introduction of an instrument called an accelerator mass spectrometer has brought about a major advance in radiocarbon dating. Unlike the old detector e. This increase in instrument sensitivity has made it possible to reduce the sample size by as much as 10, times and at the same time improve the precision of ages measured.
For a detailed discussion of radiocarbon age determination, see Carbon dating and other cosmogenic methods. In a similar development, the use of highly sensitive thermal ionization mass spectrometers is replacing the counting techniques employed in some disequilibrium dating. Not only has this led to a reduction in sample size and measurement errors, but it also has permitted a whole new range of problems to be investigated.
Certain parent-daughter isotopes are extremely refractory and do not ionize in a conventional mass spectrometer. To solve this problem, researchers are developing new instruments in which a small amount of material can be evaporated from the surface with a pulse of energy and ionized with a pulse of laser light. A major advance in geochronology and isotope geochemistry involves the analysis of mineral grains in place without chemical dissolution. This type of analysis uses the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe SHRIMP , a double-focusing secondary ion mass spectrometer, in which a focused beam of ions is directed at a spot 5—30 microns 1 micron [micrometre] equals 0.
This process blasts atoms from the surface, and, after a 15 to 20 minute analysis, a pit approximately 1 micron deep is created. The liberated secondary ions are filtered and focused in an electrostatic analyzer and measured according to their mass and energy. Uranium-lead dating of zircon using this method was pioneered by William Compston at the Australian National University. Although this method is not as precise as chemical dissolution methods, it permits spatial resolution on the order of several microns.
Thus, it is possible to date both the timing of crystallization of igneous rocks and the age of the magma -enveloped rock crystals on which the igneous zircon rims grew. Another recent analytical advance in zircon dating is the application of laser ablation—inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry LA-ICP-MS coupled to a laser system.
The laser produces a beam of ions focused on a spot as small as 10 microns in diameter, which during the analysis produces a pit of between 2 and 1, microns deep.
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The ions produced during ablation are analyzed in the coupled mass spectrometer according to mass and energy. The method is commonly used to establish the source of detrital grains forming sedimentary rocks , a task that requires analysis of more than individual grains. Isotopic dating relative to fossil dating requires a great deal of effort and depends on the integrated specialized skills of geologists, chemists, and physicists.
It is, nevertheless, a valuable resource that allows correlations to be made over virtually all of Earth history with a precision once only possible with fossiliferous units that are restricted to the most recent 12 percent or so of geologic time. Although any method may be attempted on any unit, the best use of this resource requires that every effort be made to tackle each problem with the most efficient technique.
Because of the long half-life of some isotopic systems or the high background or restricted range of parent abundances, some methods are inherently more precise. The skill of a geochronologist is demonstrated by the ability to attain the knowledge required and the precision necessary with the least number of analyses. The factors considered in selecting a particular approach are explored here.