Afterward, you may experience some mild throbbing at the puncture site. After your hCG levels have been measured in the blood sample, the results are sent to your doctor. They may request an appointment with you to discuss the results of the test. There may be a small amount of bruising where the needle was inserted.
This can be minimized by applying pressure to the area for several minutes after the needle is removed. When your lab test comes back, your doctor will tell you what your hCG levels are. If your hCG levels are outside of the normal range, it could mean a variety of things.
Your doctor will help you interpret the results. Levels of hCG that are lower than normal could mean:. The hCG test can give both false-negative results and false-positive results for pregnancy. Certain medications, including those that contain hCG, can interfere with hCG blood test results. These include fertility drugs such as Profasi, Pregnyl, and Pergonal. Test results can also be influenced by the presence of germ cell tumors.
hCG Levels - Pregnancy Hormones
These tumors grow in the same cells as your eggs or sperm. A high hCG level in absence of pregnancy could indicate that your doctor needs to do more testing to see if cancer is a factor. However, if the test was performed too early in the pregnancy, before your body has had time to produce enough hCG, you can get a false negative. Because hCG levels change so quickly during early pregnancy, the hCG blood test should be repeated within 48 to 72 hours to observe how the hormone level is changing.
On the other hand, hCG can be present in some nonpregnant conditions, potentially causing a false-positive hCG pregnancy test. These figures are estimates, and you can have hCG levels that are lower than normal and still have a healthy baby. Your doctor will check your hCG levels if they detect a problem.
Having low hCG levels doesn't always mean there's something wrong with your pregnancy, but it can indicate a problem. Here's what you need to know. What makes a carb good and what makes it bad? Turns out carbs alone can't be faulted for any weight issues - it's the combination of how and what you…. Approximately 1 in 6 U. So chances are, you may benefit at some point in your life from talking…. From worsening anxiety to making depression more likely, sugar is seriously harmful to your mental health.
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Hcg levels dating pregnancy
Infrared saunas promise a number of health benefits, from weight loss and decreased stress levels to improved circulation and even better skin. BMI has been positively associated with placental weight and increasing placental weight is associated with increasing hCG levels in this study. The pathways via which this effect occurs remain to be elucidated and a potential role for adipokines or inflammatory markers should be considered [ 38 — 40 ].
Similar to previous studies, smoking was associated with lower hCG levels in the current study as well. This indicates that discontinuation of smoking at the time of known pregnancy may prevent the reduction in total hCG levels seen amongst continuing smokers and that the effects of smoking on total hCG levels will only become apparent after a particular smoking duration dose dependency.
Indeed, similar to findings by Ball et al. Most likely, this effect is a cumulative smoking effect considering that we also found a strong dose-dependent association between the number of cigarettes smoked and total hCG decrease. Prenatal smoking has consistently been associated with an increased risk of small for gestational age children and low placental weight. It is likely that the effects of prenatal smoking on birth weight of the newborn are at least in part caused by a decrease in hCG levels as it has been shown that prenatal smoking leads to an increase in apoptosis of synctiotrophoblast cell layer [ 44 ].
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- Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study;
- Quantitative hCG Blood Pregnancy Test: Procedure and Results.
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Future studies should investigate to what extent hCG contributes to the changes in fetal growth and birth weight. Interestingly, in particular the effects of smoking, but also the effects of other characteristics seemed to be more pronounced in our study compared to other studies [ 16 — 18 , 20 , 21 , 43 , 45 ]. In turn, this could suggest that BMI, smoking, parity, ethnicity, child gender and placental weight have differential effects on specific types of hCG such as nicked or hyperglycosylated hCG. To our knowledge, this is the only study which reports RRs for total hCG during pregnancy apart from the manufacturer of the assay that we used, which reported on pregnant women [ 46 ].
Furthermore, we are the first to report the associations between detailed maternal and fetal characteristics and total hCG levels during pregnancy. We were, however, limited by the fact that LMP and the menstrual cycle, placental weight and vomiting symptoms were only available in a subset of women.
HCG Doubling Time Calculator
Also, the number of women with availability of total hCG measurements varied for each gestational week and therefore reference range determinations were not equally reliable throughout gestation, particularly during very early and the third trimester of pregnancy. Potential differences in formulas used to determine gestational age based on ultrasound data may also underlie some of our results and warrant further research. In conclusion, we provide data on total hCG reference ranges during pregnancy from a large prospective population-based cohort and identified that these may considerably differ according to pregnancy dating methodology.
Furthermore, we found that total hCG differs according to maternal BMI, smoking, parity, ethnicity, child gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms. Our results suggest that the association between gestational age, hCG and fetal growth can cause less reliable ultrasound derived pregnancy dating, in particular in women with high or low levels of hCG.
These data underline the complex relations between hCG, maternal and fetal factors, which should be taken into account when studying pregnancy complications. Our findings can serve as a reference for various clinical research studies and warrant further research on reference range determination for hCG during pregnancy. The analytical support by technicians of the endocrine laboratory is highly appreciated. We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of children and parents, general practitioners, hospitals, midwives, and pharmacies in Rotterdam.
This work was supported by a clinical fellowship from ZonMw, project number R. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. European Journal of Epidemiology. Published online May Korevaar , Eric A. Steegers , Yolanda B. Jaddoe , Henning Tiemeier , Theo J. Visser , Marco Medici , and Robin P. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Oct 24; Accepted May 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Introduction Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer.
Materials and methods Study population This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort from early fetal life onwards in Rotterdam, The Netherlands [ 24 ]. Statistical analysis Non-parametric gestational age specific RRs were determined by the 2. Gestational week N Median Minimum 2. Open in a separate window.
Reference range comparisons Pregnancy dating based on ultrasound is determined by fetal size. Discussion Total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on different methodological as well as individual factors. Acknowledgments The analytical support by technicians of the endocrine laboratory is highly appreciated. Conflict of interest The authors have nothing to disclose. Contributor Information Tim I. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Aschheim S, Zondek B. Das Hormon des hypophysenvorderlappens: Plasma concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin from the time of implantation until the second week of pregnancy.
Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules. Abnormal second-trimester serum analytes are more predictive of preterm preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, free beta-hCG, nuchal translucency, and risk of pregnancy loss.
Second-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and the relationship of maternal serum biochemical markers to pregnancy complications with adverse outcome. Quad screen as a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcome. Human chorionic gonadotropin as a measure of pregnancy duration. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Between-method variation in human chorionic gonadotropin test results.
Impact of ovulation and implantation timing on first-trimester crown-rump length and gestational age. A plea for uniformity. Am J Clin Pathol. Utility of commonly used commercial human chorionic gonadotropin immunoassays in the diagnosis and management of trophoblastic diseases.
Impact of smoking on maternal serum markers and prenatal screening in the first and second trimesters. Maternal body mass index and serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin in very early pregnancy. Refinements in managing maternal weight adjustment for interpreting prenatal screening results. Effect of fetal gender on first trimester markers and on Down syndrome screening.
- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Blood Test.
- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): The Pregnancy Hormone.
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Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex. Hyperemesis gravidarum and birth outcomes-a population-based cohort study of 2. The Generation R Study: The hCG assay or pregnancy test. Clin Chem Lab Med. New charts for ultrasound dating of pregnancy and assessment of fetal growth: Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape.
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First-trimester maternal serum levels of placental hormones are independent predictors of second-trimester fetal growth parameters. Weight correction of MoM values: Biological action of leptin as an angiogenic factor. Vascular endothelial growth factor is induced by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and oncostatin m in human adipose tissue in vitro and in murine adipose tissue in vivo.
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