- Professor Timothy H. Heaton
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Professor Timothy H. Heaton
Morris and John C. Morris and Whitcomb argued that the Earth was geologically recent and that the Great Flood had laid down most of the geological strata in the space of a single year, reviving pre-uniformitarian arguments.
Given this history, they argued, "the last refuge of the case for evolution immediately vanishes away, and the record of the rocks becomes a tremendous witness This became the foundation of a new generation of young Earth creationist believers, who organized themselves around Morris' Institute for Creation Research.
Sister organizations such as the Creation Research Society have sought to re-interpret geological formations within a Young Earth Creationist viewpoint. It is, therefore, no surprise that in their theological works, as opposed to their creation science writings, creationists regard evolution and all other theories associated with it, as the intellectual source for and intellectual justification of everything that is to them evil and destructive in modern society. For them all that is spiritually healthy and creative has been for a century or more under attack by "that most complex of godless movements spawned by the pervasive and powerful system of evolutionary uniformitarianism", "If the system of flood geology can be established on a sound scientific basis This in turn would mean that every anti-Christian system and movement communism, racism, humanism , libertarianism , behaviorism , and all the rest would be deprived of their pseudo-intellectual foundation", "It [evolution] has served effectively as the pseudo-scientific basis of atheism , agnosticism, socialism, fascism, and numerous faulty and dangerous philosophies over the past century.
Young Earth creationism directly contradicts the scientific consensus of the scientific community. A joint statement of InterAcademy Panel on International Issues IAP by 68 national and international science academies enumerated the scientific facts that young Earth creationism contradicts, in particular that the universe, the Earth, and life are billions of years old, that each has undergone continual change over those billions of years, and that life on Earth has evolved from a common primordial origin into the diverse forms observed in the fossil record and present today.
As such, young Earth creationism is dismissed by the academic and the scientific communities. One estimate found that " scientists Arkansas Board of Education as no witness was able to produce any articles that had been refused publication and the judge could not conceive how "a loose knit group of independent thinkers in all the varied fields of science could, or would, so effectively censor new scientific thought". Morris' ideas had a considerable impact on creationism and fundamentalist Christianity.
Armed with the backing of conservative organizations and individuals, his brand of "creation science" was widely promoted throughout the United States and overseas, with his books being translated into at least ten different languages. The inauguration of so-called "Young Earth Creationism" as a religious position has, on occasion, impacted science education in the United States , where periodic controversies have raged over the appropriateness of teaching YEC doctrine and creation science in public schools see Teach the Controversy alongside or in replacement of the theory of evolution.
Young Earth creationism has not had as large an impact in the less literalist circles of Christianity. Some churches, such as the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches , accede to the possibility of theistic evolution ; though individual church members support young Earth creationism and do so without those churches' explicit condemnation.
Adherence to Young Earth Creationism and rejection of evolution is higher in the U. About one third of Americans believed that humans evolved with God's guidance and 15 per cent said humans evolved , but that God had no part in the process. Reasons for the higher rejection of evolution in the U. Fifty-four per cent of those who attended church weekly and 46 per cent of those with a high school education or less took the Bible literally. The common belief of Young Earth Creationists is that the Earth and life were created in six hour periods,  6,, years ago.
However, there are different approaches to how this is possible given the geological evidence for much longer timescales. Young Earth creationists regard the Bible as a historically accurate, factually inerrant record of natural history. As Henry Morris, a leading Young Earth Creationist, explained it, "Christians who flirt with less-than-literal readings of biblical texts are also flirting with theological disaster.
Young Earth creationists interpret the text of Genesis as strictly literal. Young Earth Creationists reject allegorical readings of Genesis and further argue that if there was not a literal Fall of Man , Noah's Ark , or Tower of Babel this would undermine core Christian doctrines like the birth and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The genealogies of Genesis record the line of descent from Adam through Noah to Abraham.
Young Earth Creationists interpret these genealogies literally, including the old ages of the men. For example, Methuselah lived years according to the genealogy. Differences of opinion exist regarding whether the genealogies should be taken as complete or abbreviated, hence the 6, to 10, year range usually quoted for the Earth's age. In contrast, Old Earth Creationists tend to interpret the genealogies as incomplete, and usually interpret the days of Genesis 1 figuratively as long periods of time.
Young Earth creationists believe that the flood described in Genesis 6—9 did occur, was global in extent, and submerged all dry land on Earth. Some Young Earth Creationists go further and advocate a kind of flood geology which relies on the appropriation of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century arguments in favor of catastrophism made by such scientists as Georges Cuvier and Richard Kirwan. This approach which was replaced by the mid-nineteenth century almost entirely by uniformitarianism was adopted most famously by George McCready Price and this legacy is reflected in the most prominent YEC organizations today.
YEC ideas to accommodate the massive amount of water necessary for a flood that was global in scale included inventing such constructs as an orbiting vapor canopy which would have collapsed and generated the necessary extreme rainfall or a rapid movement of tectonic plates causing underground aquifers  or tsunamis from underwater volcanic steam  to inundate the planet.
The young Earth creationist belief that the age of the Earth is 6, to 10, years old conflicts with the age of 4. Between and , a team of scientists at the Institute for Creation Research conducted an eight-year research project entitled RATE Radioisotopes and the Age of The Earth to assess the validity and accuracy of radiometric dating techniques. While they concluded that there was overwhelming evidence for over million years' worth of radioactive decay, they claimed to have found other scientific evidence to prove a young earth. They therefore proposed that nuclear decay rates were accelerated by a factor of one billion during the Creation week and at the time of the Flood.
However, when subjected to independent scrutiny by non-affiliated experts, their analyses were shown to be flawed. Young Earth creationists reject almost all of the results of physical anthropology and human evolution and instead insist that Adam and Eve were the universal ancestors of every human to have ever lived.
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The literal belief that the world's linguistic variety originated with the tower of Babel is pseudoscientific , sometimes called pseudolinguistics, and it is contrary to what is known about the origin and history of languages. Young Earth creationists reject the geologic evidence that the stratigraphic sequence of fossils proves the Earth is billions of years old.
Radiometric Dating and Creation Science
In his Illogical Geology , expanded in as The Fundamentals of Geology , George McCready Price argued that the occasionally out-of-order sequence of fossils that are shown to be due to thrust faults made it impossible to prove any one fossil was older than any other. His "law" that fossils could be found in any order implied that strata could not be dated sequentially.
He instead proposed that essentially all fossils were buried during the flood and thus inaugurated flood geology. In numerous books and articles he promoted this concept, focusing his attack on the sequence of the geologic time scale as "the devil's counterfeit of the six days of Creation as recorded in the first chapter of Genesis. Morris reiterated Price's arguments, and wrote that because there had been no death before the Fall of Man, he felt "compelled to date all the rock strata which contain fossils of once-living creatures as subsequent to Adam's fall", attributing most to the flood.
He added that humans and dinosaurs had lived together, quoting Clifford L. Burdick for the report that dinosaur tracks had supposedly been found overlapping a human track in the Paluxy River bed Glen Rose Formation. He was subsequently advised that he might have been misled, and Burdick wrote to Morris in September that "you kind of stuck your neck out in publishing those Glen Rose tracks. Following in this vein, many young Earth creationists, especially those associated with the more visible organizations, do not deny the existence of dinosaurs and other extinct animals present in the fossil record.
A number of creationist organizations further propose that Noah took the dinosaurs with him in the ark,  and that they only began to disappear as a result of a different post-flood environment. The Creation Museum in Kentucky portrays humans and dinosaurs coexisting before the Flood while the California roadside attraction Cabazon Dinosaurs describes dinosaurs as being created the same day as Adam and Eve.
The proprietor Carl Baugh says that these conditions made creatures grow larger and live longer, so that humans of that time were giants. As the term "dinosaur" was coined by Richard Owen in , the Bible does not use the word "dinosaur". Additionally, in the Book of Job , a " behemoth " Job Biblical scholars have alternatively identified the behemoth as either an elephant, a hippopotamus , or a bull,    but some creationists have identified the behemoth with sauropod dinosaurs, often specifically the Brachiosaurus according to their interpretation of the verse "He is the chief of the ways of God" implying that the behemoth is the largest animal God created.
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Alternatively, more mainstream scholars have identified the Leviathan Job 41 with the Nile crocodile or, because Ugarit texts describe it as having seven heads, a purely mythical beast similar to the Lernaean Hydra. A subset of adherents of the pseudoscience of cryptozoology promote Young Earth creationism, particularly in the context of so-called "living dinosaurs". Science writer Sharon A.
Hill observes that the Young Earth creationist segment of cryptozoology is "well-funded and able to conduct expeditions with a goal of finding a living dinosaur that they think would invalidate evolution. Card says that "Creationists have embraced cryptozoology and some cryptozoological expeditions are funded by and conducted by creationists hoping to disprove evolution.
Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon-14 Dating
However, Megalania was a gigantic monitor lizard , and not a dinosaur, as its discoverer, Richard Owen , realized that the skeletal remains were that of a lizard , and not an archosaur. Young Earth creationism is most famous for an opposition to the theory of evolution , but believers also are on record opposing many measurements, facts, and principles in the fields of physics and chemistry , dating methods including radiometric dating , geology ,  astronomy ,  cosmology ,  and paleontology.
This has led some young Earth creationists to criticize other creationist proposals such as intelligent design , for not taking a strong stand on the age of the Earth, special creation, or even the identity of the designer. Young Earth creationists disagree with the methodological naturalism that is part of the scientific method. Instead, they assert the actions of God as described in the Bible occurred as written and therefore only scientific evidence that points to the Bible being correct can be accepted.
See Creation-evolution controversy for a more complete discussion. As a position that developed out of the explicitly anti-intellectual side of the Fundamentalist—Modernist Controversy in the early parts of the twentieth century, there is no single unified nor consistent consensus on how creationism as a belief system ought to reconcile its adherents' acceptance of biblical inerrancy with empirical facts of the Universe. Although Young Earth Creationism is one of the most stridently literalist positions taken among professed creationists, there are also examples of biblical literalist adherents to both geocentrism  and a flat Earth.
Old Earth Creationism , Gap creationism , and the Omphalos hypothesis. Young Earth creationists reject old Earth creationism and day-age creationism on textual and theological grounds. In addition, they claim that the scientific data in geology and astronomy point to a young Earth, against the consensus of the general scientific community. Young Earth creationists generally hold that, when Genesis describes the creation of the Earth occurring over a period of days, this indicates normal-length 24 hour days, and cannot reasonably be interpreted otherwise.
In the specific context of Genesis 1 , since the days are both numbered and are referred to as "evening and morning", this can mean only normal-length days. Further, they argue that the hour day is the only interpretation that makes sense of the Sabbath command in Exodus YECs argue that it is a glaring exegetical fallacy to take a meaning from one context yom referring to a long period of time in Genesis 1 and apply it to a completely different one yom referring to normal-length days in Exodus The "gap theory" acknowledges a vast age for the universe, including the Earth and solar system, while asserting that life was created recently in six hour days by divine fiat.
Genesis 1 is thus interpreted literally, with an indefinite "gap" of time inserted between the first two verses. Some gap theorists insert a "primordial creation" and Lucifer 's rebellion into the gap. Young Earth Creationist organizations argue that the gap theory is unscriptural, unscientific, and not necessary, in its various forms. Many young Earth creationists distinguish their own hypotheses from the "Omphalos hypothesis", today more commonly referred to as the apparent age concept, put forth by the naturalist and science writer Philip Henry Gosse.
Omphalos was an unsuccessful midth century attempt to reconcile creationism with geology. Gosse proposed that just as Adam had a navel omphalos is Greek for navel , evidence of a gestation he never experienced, so also the Earth was created ex nihilo complete with evidence of a prehistoric past that never actually occurred. The Omphalos hypothesis allows for a young Earth without giving rise to any predictions that would contradict scientific findings of an old Earth. The creationists who quote Kieth and Anderson never tell you this, however.
A sample that is more than fifty thousand years old shouldn't have any measurable C Coal, oil, and natural gas are supposed to be millions of years old; yet creationists say that some of them contain measurable amounts of C, enough to give them C ages in the tens of thousands of years. How do you explain this? Radiocarbon dating doesn't work well on objects much older than twenty thousand years, because such objects have so little C left that their beta radiation is swamped out by the background radiation of cosmic rays and potassium K decay.
Younger objects can easily be dated, because they still emit plenty of beta radiation, enough to be measured after the background radiation has been subtracted out of the total beta radiation. However, in either case, the background beta radiation has to be compensated for, and, in the older objects, the amount of C they have left is less than the margin of error in measuring background radiation. As Hurley points out:. Without rather special developmental work, it is not generally practicable to measure ages in excess of about twenty thousand years, because the radioactivity of the carbon becomes so slight that it is difficult to get an accurate measurement above background radiation.
Cosmic rays form beta radiation all the time; this is the radiation that turns N to C in the first place. K decay also forms plenty of beta radiation. Stearns, Carroll, and Clark point out that ". This radiation cannot be totally eliminated from the laboratory, so one could probably get a "radiocarbon" date of fifty thousand years from a pure carbon-free piece of tin. However, you now know why this fact doesn't at all invalidate radiocarbon dates of objects younger than twenty thousand years and is certainly no evidence for the notion that coals and oils might be no older than fifty thousand years.
Young Earth creationism
Creationists such as Cook claim that cosmic radiation is now forming C in the atmosphere about one and one-third times faster than it is decaying. If we extrapolate backwards in time with the proper equations, we find that the earlier the historical period, the less C the atmosphere had. If they are right, this means all C ages greater than two or three thousand years need to be lowered drastically and that the earth can be no older than ten thousand years.
Yes, Cook is right that C is forming today faster than it's decaying. However, the amount of C has not been rising steadily as Cook maintains; instead, it has fluctuated up and down over the past ten thousand years. How do we know this? From radiocarbon dates taken from bristlecone pines. There are two ways of dating wood from bristlecone pines: Since the tree ring counts have reliably dated some specimens of wood all the way back to BC, one can check out the C dates against the tree-ring-count dates. Admittedly, this old wood comes from trees that have been dead for hundreds of years, but you don't have to have an 8,year-old bristlecone pine tree alive today to validly determine that sort of date.
It is easy to correlate the inner rings of a younger living tree with the outer rings of an older dead tree. The correlation is possible because, in the Southwest region of the United States, the widths of tree rings vary from year to year with the rainfall, and trees all over the Southwest have the same pattern of variations. When experts compare the tree-ring dates with the C dates, they find that radiocarbon ages before BC are really too young—not too old as Cook maintains.
For example, pieces of wood that date at about BC by tree-ring counts date at only BC by regular C dating and BC by Cook's creationist revision of C dating as we see in the article, "Dating, Relative and Absolute," in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. So, despite creationist claims, C before three thousand years ago was decaying faster than it was being formed and C dating errs on the side of making objects from before BC look too young , not too old.
But don't trees sometimes produce more than one growth ring per year? Wouldn't that spoil the tree-ring count? If anything, the tree-ring sequence suffers far more from missing rings than from double rings. This means that the tree-ring dates would be slightly too young, not too old. Of course, some species of tree tend to produce two or more growth rings per year.
But other species produce scarcely any extra rings. Most of the tree-ring sequence is based on the bristlecone pine. This tree rarely produces even a trace of an extra ring; on the contrary, a typical bristlecone pine has up to 5 percent of its rings missing. Concerning the sequence of rings derived from the bristlecone pine, Ferguson says:. In certain species of conifers, especially those at lower elevations or in southern latitudes, one season's growth increment may be composed of two or more flushes of growth, each of which may strongly resemble an annual ring. In the growth-ring analyses of approximately one thousand trees in the White Mountains, we have, in fact, found no more than three or four occurrences of even incipient multiple growth layers.
In years of severe drought, a bristlecone pine may fail to grow a complete ring all the way around its perimeter; we may find the ring if we bore into the tree from one angle, but not from another. Hence at least some of the missing rings can be found. Even so, the missing rings are a far more serious problem than any double rings. Other species of trees corroborate the work that Ferguson did with bristlecone pines.
Before his work, the tree-ring sequence of the sequoias had been worked out back to BC. The archaeological ring sequence had been worked out back to 59 BC. The limber pine sequence had been worked out back to 25 BC. The radiocarbon dates and tree-ring dates of these other trees agree with those Ferguson got from the bristlecone pine. Three strikes against Young Earth Creationism, by J.
Geochronology - Radiometric Dating Reappraised. Ar39 - Ar40 Dating - How serious are errors in Ar Dating and how good are their monitoring standards. Shotgun Attack - Woodmorappe's efforts to attack Ar-Ar dating. What Is It Good For? Carbon Dating - Young earth creation science misunderstanding of carbon dating. Radiocarbon Dating , by Mark Aardsma. Radiohalos — Can young-earth scientists prove a young earth using radiometric methods?
Before Creation - Age of Rocks.