- How can I determine the specific time of sedimentary rock formation?
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Islamic Azad University Shiraz branch. Application of fossils are common methods for age determination of sedimentary rocks. The sedimentary rocks are characterized by fossil records. Of course there is no proof that confirm fossilization took place in each sedimentary rock. Actually preservation of fossils depend on many factors such as; presence of organism during deposition which depends on paleoecologic conditions.
In order to age determination of sedimentary rocks, we need to index fossil the fossil which large scale geographic distribution and low time interval. Paleontologic data supports the index fossil of each group of paleo-organisms. Many of stratigraphy and paleontology records help you to determine the age of sedimentary rocks. I recommend the USGS link which show you importance of fossils and stratigraphy in your question. If the sedimentary rock contains glauconite, and there hasn't been post-depositional thermal disturbance, then you can use this for K-Ar, Ar-Ar, K-Ca or Rb-Sr dating.
Of course if you have volcanic ash layers, that's the way to go. The approach of dating the youngest detrital zircon, as is sometimes done to get a maximum age, can get you rather odd results as can be demonstrated by some present-day beach sands having no zircons that are younger than Ma.
How can I determine the specific time of sedimentary rock formation?
University of California, Santa Barbara. As Nicholas says, volcanic ash layers are nice to have, and we have one in a couple of our Santa Barbara basin cores: But, the Kennett lab also did closely-spaced oxygen isotopic measurements. You can do the latter on marine sediments, and this can be tied into the global record. This is in a manuscript by Dean et al submitted to Paleooceanography.
You generally need some additional dating besides oxygen isotopes so that you know which glacial cycle you are in. The work also involved Craig Nicholson and Rick Behl and me. The time of formation of sedimentary rocks is always relative, in strict sense. This isn't a straightforward question and there is no simple answer.
By formation, do you mean the timing of deposition, or the timing of lithification? Depending on their composition, the age of these grains can sometimes be determined using radiometric dating e. U-Pb dating of zircons, or K-Ar dating of micas. However, the ages resulting from such analyses inform us about the cooling age of the crystal, so can only provide a maximum age for deposition of the sedimentary rock in which they are found.
A minimum age for the sedimentary rock can sometimes be determined by looking at what has happened to the sediment or rock after it was deposited or lithified. For example, it may be possible to use radiometric dating to ascertain the age of an intrusion in to a sedimentary body. As the sedimentary rock had to have existed to be intruded, this can give us a minimum age for the rock. Similarly, it may be possible to date crystals formed in cleavage caused by deformation, or to date the surrounding rock layers e.
All these techniques provide ranges of time in which the rock could have been deposited. If the sedimentary rock is relatively young e. Warnakulasuriya Ignatius Starin Fernando. Geological Survey and Mines Bureau. In Sri Lanka we have two type of sedimentary rocks , Jurassic age sandstone, mud stone and shale.
In both case the parent minerals ages are older than that of sediments,. Sr isotope dating of carbonates and calcareous fossils can be done in sedimentary rocks. If you get volcanic rocks within sedimentary succession, that can also be dated by the radiometric method such as U-Pb or Ar-Ar. National Institute of Ocean Technology. For some type of sediment - undisturbed lake-sediment successions, for instance - you could use sedimentation rates, which gives you an estimation of the time span.
I am not sure whether your question relates to the a age of the sedimentary rock or b duration required for the sedimentary formation to evolve. Prof Nicholas gives a fair summary of this.
I am not sure how well the magnetic polarity works, except in the sea-bed sequences that are cored through controlled methods. While using them, caution needs to be exercised in ensuring that the secondary cement, compaction factors and inter-stratal loss is correctly estimated. One of the most widely used and well-known absolute dating techniques is carbon or radiocarbon dating, which is used to date organic remains. This is a radiometric technique since it is based on radioactive decay.
Carbon moves up the food chain as animals eat plants and as predators eat other animals.
With death, the uptake of carbon stops. It takes 5, years for half the carbon to change to nitrogen; this is the half-life of carbon After another 5, years only one-quarter of the original carbon will remain. After yet another 5, years only one-eighth will be left.
By measuring the carbon in organic material , scientists can determine the date of death of the organic matter in an artifact or ecofact. The relatively short half-life of carbon, 5, years, makes dating reliable only up to about 50, years. The technique often cannot pinpoint the date of an archeological site better than historic records, but is highly effective for precise dates when calibrated with other dating techniques such as tree-ring dating. An additional problem with carbon dates from archeological sites is known as the "old wood" problem. It is possible, particularly in dry, desert climates, for organic materials such as from dead trees to remain in their natural state for hundreds of years before people use them as firewood or building materials, after which they become part of the archaeological record.
Thus dating that particular tree does not necessarily indicate when the fire burned or the structure was built.
For this reason, many archaeologists prefer to use samples from short-lived plants for radiocarbon dating. The development of accelerator mass spectrometry AMS dating, which allows a date to be obtained from a very small sample, has been very useful in this regard. Other radiometric dating techniques are available for earlier periods. One of the most widely used is potassium—argon dating K—Ar dating.
Potassium is a radioactive isotope of potassium that decays into argon The half-life of potassium is 1. Potassium is common in rocks and minerals, allowing many samples of geochronological or archeological interest to be dated. Argon , a noble gas, is not commonly incorporated into such samples except when produced in situ through radioactive decay.
The date measured reveals the last time that the object was heated past the closure temperature at which the trapped argon can escape the lattice.
K—Ar dating was used to calibrate the geomagnetic polarity time scale. Thermoluminescence testing also dates items to the last time they were heated. This technique is based on the principle that all objects absorb radiation from the environment. This process frees electrons within minerals that remain caught within the item. Heating an item to degrees Celsius or higher releases the trapped electrons , producing light. This light can be measured to determine the last time the item was heated.
Radiation levels do not remain constant over time. Fluctuating levels can skew results — for example, if an item went through several high radiation eras, thermoluminescence will return an older date for the item. Many factors can spoil the sample before testing as well, exposing the sample to heat or direct light may cause some of the electrons to dissipate, causing the item to date younger. It cannot be used to accurately date a site on its own.
However, it can be used to confirm the antiquity of an item. Optically stimulated luminescence OSL dating constrains the time at which sediment was last exposed to light. During sediment transport, exposure to sunlight 'zeros' the luminescence signal. Upon burial, the sediment accumulates a luminescence signal as natural ambient radiation gradually ionises the mineral grains. Careful sampling under dark conditions allows the sediment to be exposed to artificial light in the laboratory which releases the OSL signal.
The amount of luminescence released is used to calculate the equivalent dose De that the sediment has acquired since deposition, which can be used in combination with the dose rate Dr to calculate the age. Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings , also known as growth rings.
Dendrochronology can date the time at which tree rings were formed, in many types of wood, to the exact calendar year. Dendrochronology has three main areas of application: In some areas of the world, it is possible to date wood back a few thousand years, or even many thousands.
Currently, the maximum for fully anchored chronologies is a little over 11, years from present. Amino acid dating is a dating technique      used to estimate the age of a specimen in paleobiology , archaeology , forensic science , taphonomy , sedimentary geology and other fields.