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By January "at least persons had been executed. Between January and June , when Bani-Sadr was impeached, at least executions took place, [] for everything from drug and sexual offenses to "corruption on earth", from plotting counter-revolution and spying for Israel to membership in opposition groups. In mid-August , shortly after the election of the constitution-writing assembly, several dozen newspapers and magazines opposing Khomeini's idea of theocratic rule by jurists were shut down. It is evident we are not. After each revolution several thousand of these corrupt elements are executed in public and burnt and the story is over.

They are not allowed to publish newspapers. Hundreds were injured by "rocks, clubs, chains and iron bars" when Hezbollahi attacked the protesters, [] and shortly after, a warrant was issued for the arrest of the NDF's leader. In January Abolhassan Banisadr was elected president of Iran.

Though an adviser to Khomeini, he was a leftist who clashed with another ally of Khomeini, the theocratic Islamic Republic Party IRP — the controlling power in the new parliament. At the same time, erstwhile revolutionary allies of Khomeini — the Islamist modernist guerrilla group People's Mujahedin of Iran or MEK — were being suppressed by Khomeini's revolutionary organizations.

Khomeini attacked the MEK as monafeqin hypocrites and kafer unbelievers. Universities were closed to purge them of opponents of theocratic rule as a part of the " Cultural Revolution ", and 20, teachers and nearly 8, military officers deemed too westernized were dismissed. By mid matters came to a head. An attempt by Khomeini to forge a reconciliation between Banisadr and IRP leaders had failed, [] and now it was Banisadr who was the rallying point "for all doubters and dissidents" of the theocracy, including the MEK.

When leaders of the National Front called for a demonstration in June in favor of Banisadr, Khomeini threatened its leaders with the death penalty for apostasy "if they did not repent. On 28 June , a bombing of the office of the IRP killed around 70 high-ranking officials, cabinet members and members of parliament, including Mohammad Beheshti , the secretary-general of the party and head of the Islamic Republic's judicial system. The government responded with thousands of arrests and hundreds of executions. The MEK bombings were not the only violent opposition to the Khomeinist rule.

Views differ on the impact of the revolution. Internationally, the initial impact of the revolution was immense. In the non-Muslim world it changed the image of Islam, generating much interest in Islam — both sympathetic [] and hostile [] — and even speculation that the revolution might change "the world balance of power more than any political event since Hitler's conquest of Europe.

Revolutionary leaders in Iran gave and sought support from non-Muslim causes— e. In its region, Iranian Islamic revolutionaries called specifically for the overthrow of monarchies and their replacement with Islamic republics, much to the alarm of its smaller Sunni-run Arab neighbors Iraq , Saudi Arabia , Kuwait , and the other Persian Gulf States — most of whom were monarchies and all of whom had sizable Shi'a populations.

It was with one of these countries that the Iran—Iraq War , which killed hundreds of thousands and dominated life in the Islamic Republic for the next eight years, was fought. In September the Arab Nationalist and Sunni Muslim-dominated regime of Saddam Hussein of neighboring Iraq invaded Iran in an attempt to take advantage of revolutionary chaos and destroy the revolution in its infancy.

Although Iraq invaded Iran, most of the war was fought after Iran had regained most of its land back and after the Iraqi government had offered a truce.

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Khomeini rejected it, announcing the only condition for peace was that "the regime in Baghdad must fall and must be replaced by an Islamic republic," [] but ultimately the war ended with no Islamic revolution in Iraq. Like the hostage crisis, the war served in part as an opportunity for the government to strengthen revolutionary ardour and revolutionary groups; [] the Revolutionary Guard and committees at the expense of its remaining allies-turned-opponents, such as the MEK.

Iran experienced difficult relations with some Western countries, especially the United States. Iran was under constant US unilateral sanctions , which were tightened under the presidency of Bill Clinton. Once having political relations with Iran dating back to the late Ilkhanate period 13th century , [] Britain suspended all diplomatic relations with Iran. Britain did not have an embassy until it was reopened in In the Mideast and Muslim world, particularly in its early years, it triggered enormous enthusiasm and redoubled opposition to western intervention and influence.

Although ultimately only the Lebanese Islamists succeeded, other activities have had more long-term impact. The Ayatollah Khomeini's fatwa calling for the killing of Indian-born British citizen Salman Rushdie had international impact. The Islamic revolutionary government itself is credited with helping establish Hezbollah in Lebanon [] and the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq. On the other side of the ledger, at least one observer argues that despite great effort and expense the only countries outside Iran the revolution had a "measure of lasting influence" on are Lebanon and Iraq.

Internally, Iran has had some success in recent years in the broadening of education and health care for the poor, and particularly governmental promotion of Islam , and the elimination of secularism and American influence in government. Criticisms have been raised with regards to political freedom , governmental honesty and efficiency , economic equality and self-sufficiency , or even popular religious devotion.

Literacy has continued to increase under the Islamic Republic which uses Islamic principles. Iran has elected governmental bodies at the national, provincial, and local levels. Although these bodies are subordinate to theocracy — which has veto power over who can run for parliament or Islamic Consultative Assembly and whether its bills can become law — they have more power than equivalent organs in the Shah's government. Whether the Islamic Republic has brought more or less severe political repression is disputed.

Grumbling once done about the tyranny and corruption of the Shah and his court is now directed against "the Mullahs. Censorship is handled by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance , without whose official permission, "no books or magazines are published, no audiotapes are distributed, no movies are shown and no cultural organization is established. All forms of popular music are banned.

Men and women are not allowed to dance or swim with each other. Throughout the beginning of the 20th century and prior to the revolution, many women leaders emerged and demanded basic social rights for women. The revolutionary government rewrote laws in an attempt to force women to leave the workforce by promoting the early retirement of female government employees, the closing of childcare centers, enforcing full Islamic cover in offices and public places, as well as preventing women from studying in fields in higher education.

Women — especially those from traditional backgrounds — participated on a large scale in demonstrations leading up to the revolution. Since the revolution, university enrollment and the number of women in the civil service and higher education has risen [] and several women have been elected to the Iranian parliament.

Iran's post-revolutionary economy has a significant state-owned or parastatal sector, including businesses owned by the Revolutionary Guards and Bonyad foundations. But most of this increase can be attributed to the rise in oil prices in the s. The value of Iran's currency declined precipitously after the revolution. Whereas on 15 March , Transparency International ranked Iran th out of countries in transparency i.

It is said that there are attempts to incorporate modern political and social concepts into Islamic canon since The attempt was a reaction to the secular political discourse namely Marxism, liberalism and nationalism. Following the death of Ayatollah Boroujerdi, some of the scholars like Murtaza Mutahhari, Muhammad Beheshti and Muhmud Talighani found new opportunity to change conditions. Before them, Boroujerdi was considered as a conservative Marja.

They tried to reform conditions after the death of the ayatollah. They presented their arguments by rendering lectures in and in Tehran. The result of the lectures was the book "An inquiry into principles of Mar'jaiyat". Some of the major issues highlighted were the government in Islam, the need for the clergy's independent financial organization, Islam as a way of life, advising and guiding youth and necessity of being community.

Allameh Tabatabei refers to velayat as a political philosophy for Shia and velayat faqih for Shia community. There are also other attempts to formulate a new attitude of Islam such as the publication of three volumes of Maktab Tashayyo. Also somebodies believe that it is indispensable to revive the religious gathered in Hoseyniyeh-e-Ershad.

Removal of Shah's statue by the people in University of Tehran. Khomeini at Mehrabad Airport. People accompanying Khomeini from Mehrabad to Behesht Zahra. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the revolution in Iran. For the to revolution, see Persian Constitutional Revolution. For the series of reforms launched in , see White Revolution. For the video game based off the events, see Revolution: Ruhollah Khomeini return from France on 1 February Revolution Council Interim Government.

Part of a series on the. Human rights in Iran. Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution. Movement of 15 Khordad. Ideology of the Iranian Revolution. Organizations of the Iranian Revolution. Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran. The presence of women in Tehran Ashura Demonstration, 11 December Casualties of the Iranian Revolution.

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Iqbal s. Principles of State and Government Asad Ma'alim fi al-Tariq "Milestones" Qutb Governance of the Jurist "Velayat-e faqih" Khomeini Communitarianism Democracy Liberalism Monarchism. Iranian Islamic Republic referendum, March Assembly of Experts for Constitution ; Iranian Constitutional Convention election, ; and Iranian constitutional referendum, December History of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Women's rights in Iran and Women's rights movement in Iran.

Islam portal Iran portal Military history portal Politics portal s portal. US government transferred million dollars to Khomeini's bank account in France to support him. Gary Sick; [33] Michael M. Fischer; [34] Nikkie R. I am indebted to Prof. Bill for directing me to Laleh'ha-ye Enqelab , which he too has used as sampling of revolutionary fatalities Bill, James, The Eagle and the Lion , p.

Archived 31 October Archived from the original on 29 June Limitations of Sacredness and the Origins of Sovereignty. Helden - Heroisierungen - Heroismen 6. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Retrieved 18 October The Life and Times of the Shah. Archived from the original on 25 September Oxford University Press, pp. Archived from the original on 10 October Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution. Archived from the original on 12 October Ancient Soul of Iran".

The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian mythology and Islamic revolution. Religion and Rebellion in Iran: The Tobacco Protest of — University of Texas Press, p.

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Religion and Politics in Iran. The Changing Discourse in Iran. University of Texas Press. Archived from the original on 25 October Archived from the original on 30 September The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 10 March Liberal Nationalism in Iran: The failure of a movement.

Workers and Working Classes in the Middle East: State University of New York Press.

Iran's Dating Revolution

Archived from the original on 4 August The New York Times. The Revolutionary Process in Iran". University of Wisconsin Press. Essays on the Islamic Republic , Berkeley: University of California Press. Essays on the Islamic Republic. University of California Press, p. The Last Great Revolution: Turmoil And Transformation In Iran. Distributed by Random House. Oxford University Press, Inc. My Life With The Shah. Imam Khomeini life, thought and legacy: Archived from the original on 15 September University of Chicago Press.

Archived PDF from the original on 28 May A History of the Islamic Republic. Archived from the original on 27 April Lessons for the Arab Spring of ? Archived PDF from the original on 14 September The Age of Reagan: The Fall of the Old Liberal Order. Memoirs of a president , Bantam, , p. Defying the Iranian Revolution. Ali Modern Iran: From Aurora to Abadan Academic Exchange". Archived from the original on 22 December Archived from the original on 19 October Archived from the original on 24 October US Officials and the Fall of the Shah: Some Safe Contraction Interpretations.

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Archived from the original on 4 June Archived 6 July at the Wayback Machine. The commandment of Ayatollah Khomeini for Bazargan and his sermon on 5 February. Archived from the original on 13 February International Journal of Middle East Studies. Woodrow Wilson Center Press. Women and revolution in Iran. Archived from the original on 11 September Retrieved 10 May The unthinkable revolution in Iran. Iranian Women's Rights and the Revolution" In the shadow of Islam. The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran".

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Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 31 August I meant theocracy Archived 25 August at the Wayback Machine. Iran Since the Revolution. Dr Mohamad Kamand warns him that education and family background matter much more than love. On one side there is a rational decision. On the other side there is a decision based on love. I met my partner, love at first sight, I'd say it was, and we are together ten years. So is it really that dangerous, do you think? I must be the minority.

The fingers who click on the website can't choose their potential partners, it's done for them by traditional match makers. I want to meet them. An army of women in here. They don't just take clients from the Government, anyone can approach them. This agency is run by Malakeh Mogadam, Tehran's most famous matchmaker. It's not just in this room, it's packed in the next room as well, full of match makers. They work for free. Match making is an age-old tradition in Iran, it's seen as a religious good deed. Ms Mogadam shows me what she calls her, her dowry room.

This essentially is a roomful of donations from very nice people, to couples who are starting off, who are starting off in married life, who might need a sewing machine, or shoes. The pile of presents is getting bigger, but no-one's taking them away. The matchmakers get plenty of calls, but the clients are getting more demanding. I would say you are slim. Black eyes, your skin tone is quite pale. The next questions are about Islamic values, like listening to music, the religious censors haven't cleared.

Regarding work, must the boy have a degree or can he just be a nice boy with good morals?

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You laugh, but these demands are causing problems for society. If you compare it to 10 years ago expectations are higher, people are more demanding. Saba has told us about one of her university classes, a compulsory course on marriage. The group is led by Ali Sabor, a Professor of Islamic education, also a matchmaker.

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Sexual desire is something that has to be controlled. The best way to fulfil your sexual needs is by getting married. Mr Jafari steps in. He lived in the USA for years and has views on the situation there. A typical girl in high school has 10 boyfriends at least.

Then she goes to university and the same thing happens. All in all a girl has 20 boyfriends before she gets married. In Tehran, more young people now live together without being married, something that shocks Saba. Marriage is promoted, the Supreme Leader tells us to marry and have children. I have proposed three times, when I was 21, 22 and 23 and every time the family found something wrong with me.

In Iran, the tradition of getting parental permission for marriage remains strong, so if you don't have a good job or get on with the family, you're in trouble, even if you are deeply in love. So Ali, Zohre is your future wife to be, is that right?

Iran's regime-approved matchmaking website promotes dating with traditional values

Yes, it was quite confusing in the beginning, but when I chose Zohre to be my wife I could see the differences between them. Ali's 28, Zohre and Zara are He's a film-maker, Zohre is an illustrator. They met at work four months ago. They want to get married as soon as possible, but first their parents need to agree financial terms. There's a very beautiful and respectful dynamic between Ali and Zohre and even though they have chosen not to be intimate before marriage, it's so obvious that they are head over heels and deeply in love with each other. The scarf was a little bit too forward, we are going into quite a religious ceremony so I have to cover up.

Tonight Zohre will meet up with Ali at the house of a family friend. It's the date when she and Muslims remember the death of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Mohamad. You can really see it's such an emotional thing. People are in tears out there and it's so interesting to see Zara, Zohre and Ali and their dedication to their religion. Apparently you can make a wish as you stir the soup. Zohre and Ali are also praying for their own future together. Their families are meeting up in three days' time and they are hoping they'll be given permission to marry. I wish that Ali will get a job that he loves.

I also wished that our engagement ceremony and the family negotiations will all go well. Zohre and Ali are following tradition but other people their age are pushing the envelope. Apparently we have just walked in on a full-blown Iranian style photo shoot, and according to these guys these photos are just to upload on Instagram. This group of friends are studying psychology. They tell me they are all single but go out on group dates. Oh, wow, stunning, I never get that many! This is serious dedication for social media. I'm very, very impressed.

Before I came to Iran I was led to believe that boys and girls were not allowed to hang out together. That's obviously not true. There are some rules and limitations within families. The situation has dramatically improved. What makes us different from others here is that none of us come from strict families.

There is so much misconception about Iran, so it should be very interesting to observe it from close, from up close, that, you know, there is so much freedom here. Of course, I conducted this conversation carefully, avoiding sensitive topics like banned dating websites, parties with alcohol, or sex before marriage. The social scene here is amazingly complex and it seems to be both subtle and quite restrictive at the same time.

And because of that, some young Iranians feel trapped, somewhere between Islamic culture and western culture, and they are not quite sure where their identity lies. I'm rejoining Saba who is waiting to hear news from the dating agency. Saba's taking me on a spot of shopping before she gets a call from Miss Mogadam.

In an ideal word, she said, she wouldn't use a matchmaker at all.

The matchers seem a bit predictable. I would prefer to find somebody myself rather than have them picked for me. Saba's a conservative girl.

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She won't go on casual dates or break the rules, but she wants romance and that's difficult. She didn't meet up with either of the matchmaker's men. We have joined Ali on the drive to Zohre's home, their families are meeting to negotiate the terms of the marriage, a process known as Balleboroon. Please refresh the page and retry. T he psychologist delivered a stern warning about the dangers of Western romantic habits. Tebyan is a dating website with a difference. Profile pictures are forbidden and parents must accompany would-be couples on their first dates. The aim of this website is to use Islamic principles to get single young people together.

The regime frowns on Western ideas like dating and this website is part of its campaign to keep strict controls in place. Sex outside wedlock is illegal in Iran, but many young people are shunning the idea of getting married. The number of births per woman of child-bearing age has fallen from 7 in to 1. Dating websites like Tinder are banned in Iran, but about unofficial dating websites are believed to exist.

She made clear that a boy with good morals but no education would not be good enough.