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- Victoria (Australia)
State Government efforts to decentralise population have included an official campaign run since to encourage Victorians to settle in regional areas,  however Melbourne continues to rapidly outpace these areas in terms of population growth. The government predicts that nearly a quarter of Victorians will be aged over 60 by The census reveals that Australian median age has crept upward from 35 to 37 since , which reflects the population growth peak of — In — there were homicides.
Roman Catholics form the single largest religious group in the state with Buddhism is the state's largest non-Christian religion, with , members as of the most recent census. Victoria is also home of , Muslims and 45, Jews. Hinduism is the fastest growing religion. Amongst those who declare a religious affiliation, church attendance is low. In the proportion of couples marrying in a church had dropped to Victoria's state school system dates back to , when the colonial government legislated to make schooling both free and compulsory.
The state's public secondary school system began in Before then, only private secondary schooling was available. Today, a Victorian school education consists of seven years of primary schooling including one preparatory year and six years of secondary schooling. The final years of secondary school are optional for children aged over Victorian children generally begin school at age five or six. Victorian schools are either publicly or privately funded. Public schools, also known as state or government schools, are funded and run directly by the Victoria Department of Education . Students do not pay tuition fees, but some extra costs are levied.
Private fee-paying schools include parish schools run by the Roman Catholic Church and independent schools similar to British public schools. Independent schools are usually affiliated with Protestant churches. Victoria also has several private Jewish and Islamic primary and secondary schools. Private schools also receive some public funding.
All schools must comply with government-set curriculum standards. Students at these schools are exclusively admitted on the basis of an academic selective entry test. As of August , Victoria had 1, public schools, Catholic schools and independent schools. Just under , students were enrolled in public schools, and just over , in private schools.
Over 61 per cent of private students attend Catholic schools. More than , students were enrolled in primary schools and more than , in secondary schools. Retention rates for the final two years of secondary school were 77 per cent for public school students and 90 per cent for private school students.
Victoria has about 63, full-time teachers. Victoria has nine universities. The first to offer degrees, the University of Melbourne , enrolled its first student in The largest, Monash University , has an enrolment of over 70, students—more than any other Australian university. Victoria has 18 government-run institutions of "technical and further education" TAFE. The first vocational institution in the state was the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute established in , which is now the Melbourne Athenaeum.
More than 1, adult education organisations are registered to provide recognised TAFE programs. In , there were about , students enrolled in vocational education programs in the state. The State Library of Victoria is the State's research and reference library. It is responsible for collecting and preserving Victoria's documentary heritage and making it available through a range of services and programs.
Material in the collection includes books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps, pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases. In addition, local governments maintain local lending libraries, typically with multiple branches in their respective municipal areas. The state of Victoria is the second largest economy in Australia after New South Wales, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product. The economy grew by 1. Finance and insurance is Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the health care and social assistance sector is the state's biggest employer.
The shift towards service industries in the preceding decades has seen manufacturing lose its mantle as Victoria's largest employer and income producer. Victorian farms range from small horticultural outfits to large-scale livestock and grain productions. A quarter of farmland is used to grow consumable crops. It is also a leader in stone fruit production. The main vegetable crops include asparagus, broccoli, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes. Last year, , tonnes of pears and , tonnes of tomatoes were produced.
Victoria also exports live sheep to the Middle East for meat and to the rest of the world for breeding. More than , tonnes of wool clip was also produced—one-fifth of the Australian total. Victoria is the centre of dairy farming in Australia. The state also has 2.
Most abalone and rock lobster is exported to Asia. Victoria has a diverse range of manufacturing enterprises and Melbourne is considered Australia's most important industrial city. The post-World War II manufacturing boom was fuelled by international investment; attracted to the state by the availability of cheap land close to the city and inexpensive energy from the Latrobe Valley.
Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the state's most valuable manufacturing activity, followed by food and beverage products, petrochemicals and chemicals. Prominent manufacturing plants in the state include the Portland and Point Henry aluminium smelters, owned by Alcoa ; oil refineries at Geelong and Altona ; a major petrochemical facility at Laverton ; and Victorian-based CSL , a global biotechnology company that produces vaccines and plasma products, among others. Victoria also plays an important role in providing goods for the defence industry. Victoria proportionally relies on manufacturing more than any other state in Australia, constituting 8.
However, this proportion has been declining for three decades; in at the time of the early s recession manufacturing constituted Since , manufacturing employment has also fallen in both aggregate , to , workers and proportional The strong Australian dollar as a result of the s mining boom , small population and isolation, high wage base and the general shift of manufacturing production towards developing countries have been cited as some of the reasons for this decline.
Historically, Victoria has been a hub for the manufacturing plants of the major car brands Ford , Toyota and Holden ; however, closure announcements by all three companies in the s has meant Australia will completely lose their car manufacturing industry by the end of Holden's announcement occurred in May following Ford's decision in December the previous year Ford's Victorian plants, in Broadmeadows and Geelong, closed in October Victoria adopted the Torrens system of land registration with the Real Property Act The common law system continues to apply to all other private landholdings.
The oil and gas industries are centred off the coast of Gippsland in the state's east, while brown coal mining and power generation is based in the Latrobe Valley. Brown coal is Victoria's leading mineral, with 66 million tonnes mined each year for electricity generation in the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. Victoria also produces limited amounts of gypsum and kaolin.
The service industries sector is the fastest growing component of the Victorian economy. It includes the wide range of activities generally classified as financial and professional services; health care and social assistance, education, transportation, IT and communication services, government services and wholesale and retail trade.
Most service industries are located in Melbourne and the state's larger regional centres. As of —16, service industries employed over three-quarters of Victorian workers and more than three-quarters of the state's GSP.
Finance and insurance as a group provide more value-add to the economy than any other economic activity in Victoria while health care and social assistance employ the most workers. Major events that explore cultural diversity, music and sports play a big part in Victoria's tourism. Victoria's northern border follows a straight line from Cape Howe to the start of the Murray River and then follows the Murray River as the remainder of the northern border. On the Murray River, the border is the southern bank of the river.
This precise definition was not established until , when a ruling by Justice Ninian Stephen of the High Court of Australia settled the question as to which state had jurisdiction in the unlawful death of a man on an island in the middle of the river. The ruling clarified that no part of the watercourse is in Victoria. It is bordered by South Australia to the west and shares Australia's shortest land border with Tasmania. There are extensive semi-arid plains to the west and northwest. There is an extensive series of river systems in Victoria. Most notable is the Murray River system.
The state symbols include the pink heath state flower , Leadbeater's possum state animal and the helmeted honeyeater state bird. For other cities and towns, see list of localities Victoria and local government areas of Victoria. Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid temperate with hot summers in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state.
Winters along the coast of the state, particularly around Melbourne , are relatively mild see chart at right. Victoria's southernmost position on the Australian mainland means it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories. The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's mildest climate. Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region. The Mallee and upper Wimmera are Victoria's warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby semi-deserts.
Victoria's highest maximum temperature of The Victorian Alps in the northeast are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east—west through the centre of Victoria. Victoria is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania. Rainfall in Victoria increases from south to the northeast, with higher averages in areas of high altitude.
Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous northeast. Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District , making them both leading farming areas. Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was Average January maximum temperatures: Victoria's north is almost always hotter than coastal and mountainous areas. Average July maximum temperatures: Victoria's hills and ranges are coolest during winter.
Snow also falls there. Victoria's rainfall is concentrated in the mountainous north-east and coast. Victoria has the highest population density in any state in Australia, with population centres spread out over most of the state; only the far northwest and the Victorian Alps lack permanent settlement. The Victorian road network services the population centres, with highways generally radiating from Melbourne and other major cities and rural centres with secondary roads interconnecting the highways to each other.
Rail transport in Victoria is provided by several private and public railway operators who operate over government-owned lines. There are also several smaller freight operators and numerous tourist railways operating over lines which were once parts of a state-owned system. Melbourne has the world's largest tram network ,  currently operated by Yarra Trams. As well as being a popular form of public transport, over the last few decades trams have become one of Melbourne's major tourist attractions.
There are also tourist trams operating over portions of the former Ballarat and Bendigo systems. There are also tramway museums at Bylands and Haddon. Melbourne Airport is the major domestic and international gateway for the state. Avalon Airport is the state's second busiest airport, which complements Essendon and Moorabbin Airports to see the remainder of Melbourne's air traffic.
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There are no fewer than 27 other airports in the state with no scheduled flights. The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia,  and is located in Melbourne on the mouth of the Yarra River , which is at the head of Port Phillip. Additional seaports are at Westernport , Geelong , and Portland. As of October , smoking tobacco is prohibited in the sheltered areas of train stations, and tram and bus stops—between and , people were issued with infringement notices. The state government announced a plan in October to prohibit smoking on all Victorian railway station platforms and raised tram stops.
Victoria's major utilities include a collection of brown-coal-fired power stations, particularly in the Latrobe Valley. Victoria's water infrastructure includes a series of dams and reservoirs, predominantly in Central Victoria, that hold and collect water for much of the state.
The water collected is of a very high quality and requires little chlorination treatment, giving the water a taste more like water collected in a rainwater tank.
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In regional areas however, such as in the west of the state, chlorination levels are much higher. The Victorian Water Grid consists of a number of new connections and pipelines being built across the State. This allows water to be moved around Victoria to where it is needed most and reduces the impact of localised droughts in an era thought to be influenced by climate change. Major projects already completed as part of the Grid include the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline and the Goldfields Superpipe.
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Victoria's newest public holiday is Grand Final Friday. The holiday is celebrated the day before the AFL Grand Final and was designated in "to celebrate Australia's national game". Victoria's cricket team, the Victorian Bushrangers play in the national Sheffield Shield cricket competition. It hosted the Australian Masters golf tournament from to Netball is a big part of sport in Victoria. Australia's most prestigious footrace, the Stawell Gift , is an annual event.
Victoria is also home to the Aussie Millions poker tournament, the richest in the Southern Hemisphere. The Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival is one of the biggest horse racing events in the world and is one of the world's largest sporting events. Victoria has 4 sister states: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other places named Victoria, see Victoria Places. You are not left to your own devices; you will have people with you every step of the way. Our consultants understand that joining an agency takes most people out of their comfort zone; this is where our professional consultants step in.
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